Trucks are the most common means of road freight in the world, being able to carry a great variety of goods. In this article, we will focus on existing truck types. Therefore, we made a classification of the types of trucks that will refresh your knowledge on this topic. Let’s get started!
- Tilt trucks
Tarpaulin trucks are the most common means of road freight on the roads around the world. Depending on their size, they fall into several categories.
- trucks with tarpaulin of 1,5 useful tons;
- trucks with tarpaulin of 3,5 useful tons;
- trucks with tarpaulin of 7,5 useful tons;
- trucks with tarpaulin of 20 - 22 useful tons;
- MEGA type tarpaulin semi-trailers;
- JUMBO type tarpaulin semi-trailers;
- trailer trucks.
The trucks with tarpaulin of 1,5 - 3,5 useful tons can provide efficient and flexible transport for goods with a capacity of less than 1 ton and up to 3.5 tons. Also, these trucks can be equipped with ADR approved for the transport of dangerous goods.
Read more about ADR merchandise here.
Trucks with tarpaulin of 7,5 useful tons are an advantageous alternative for general cargo or ADR dangerous goods with a capacity of up to 8 tons. Thanks to the tarpaulin, the goods can be loaded through the back, on the side with forklifts, but also with cranes from the top.
The trucks with tarpaulin of 20 - 22 useful tons are standard means of transport met on all transport routes. This type of trucks can be loaded with 20 to 22 tons of cargo, having a length of the semi-trailer of 13.60 m, a width of 2.45 m, a height of tarpaulin of 2.60 - 2.70 m and an average volume of approximately 86 - 89 cubic meters. The trucks with tarpaulin of 20 – 22 tons are used for both group transport (LTL) and full transport (FTL) to and from any destination.
Unlike standard trucks, MEGA tarpaulin semi-trailers are used to transport heavy cargo having larger dimensions. They have 3 m height tarpaulin and ensure the loading of 95 - 100 cubic meters volume, with a useful weight of 20 - 22 tons.
JUMBO type tarpaulin semi-trailers are different from other types of trucks in that the semi-trailer has the so-called "swan neck", which is lower in the central part and higher at the ends. The lower floor allows the loading of tall goods up to 3 m high in the central part and 2.40 m in the front. The trucks with JUMBO semi-trailer ensure the loading of up to 95 cubic meters volume, with a useful weight of 21 - 22 tons.
Trailer trucks are preferred due to their higher payload compared to other trucks. The payload dimensions of the trailer trucks are the sum of the truck dimensions: 7 - 8 mx 2.45 mx 2.70 m and the dimensions of the trailer: 7 - 8 mx 2.45 mx 2.70 m or, in some cases, 3 m. The goods that are transported with this type of trucks can vary from general cargo to ADR dangerous goods. Typically, trailer trucks are less frequent than semi-trailers.
- Frigo trucks
Refrigerated trucks are those types of trucks that provide international and / or domestic transportation for goods that require a controlled temperature or have a higher degree of perishability. Usually, the goods transported by refrigerated trucks are foodstuff, but they can also be flowers, medicine, heat-sensitive substances and more.
Refrigerated trucks can have several capacities:
- 1,5 useful tons refrigeration vans;
- 3,5 useful tons refrigeration vans;
- Refrigerated trucks of 20 - 21 useful tons.
Refrigerated trucks allow the transport of perishable goods in two variants:
- Refrigerated transport with freezing: used when transporting frozen foods, such as: frozen meat, frozen fish, etc. at usual temperatures of -18 / -20 ° C.
- Refrigerated transport with refrigeration: used when transporting food that requires only cooling and keeping a constant temperature throughout the transport. Examples of foods: fresh fish, fresh meat, dairy products, fresh vegetables and fruits, etc.
- Oversized trucks
A transport is considered to be oversized when the outside dimensions of the trucks exceed the regulated maximum dimensions:
- if the external dimensions of the truck together with the cargo on it exceed 16.50 x 2.55 x 4.00m*;
- if the total weight exceeds 40t
- if axle weights exceeds local regulations
*for a tractor + semitrailer combination. Other types of trucks can have different limitations e.g. car-carriers can be 18.75m long
Oversized trailers can be of several types:
- low-bed trailers: with the floor near the ground;
- trailers expandable in width and / or height;
- long trailers depending on the number of axles.
Read more about oversized goods here.
These are the types of trucks, classified by size, capacity and purpose for which they are used. What kind of truck do you drive? Write us in the comments!