What are the types of road freight?


What are the types of roar fright?

Road transport means any transport operation carried out using road vehicles in order to move goods or persons from one location to another. In this article, we will focus on the types of road freight. Therefore, we made a classification of the road freight activity that will improve your knowledge on this important topic. Let’s get started!


The road freight transport can be carried out as follows:

  1. Road transport in national traffic

By national traffic we refer to the operation of road transport that is carried out between two towns located in the territory of the same state, without exceeding the territory of that state.

  1. Road transport in international traffic

By international traffic we refer to the operation of road transport that is carried out between a departure and a destination town, located on the territory of two different states, with or without passing through of one or more states.



According to the type of freight, the categories of road freight transport are the following:

  1. General goods road transportation

The category of general merchandise means a very varied range of goods and products. Basically, this category includes all the goods that can be transported with a standard means of transport. General goods can be transported in full transport (FTL) and in bulk (LTL).

The general goods category does not include those goods which, due to their characteristics, properties, dimensions, volumes or weight, can only be transported by specialized or authorized means of transport.


  1. Road transport of foodstuffs

Foodstuff with a lower or higher degree of perishability must be transported by refrigerated means of transport equipped with controlled temperature units, in conditions of maximum safety and cleanliness. The refrigerated transport is divided into two main categories:

  • Refrigerated transport with freezing

Refrigerated frozen transport is used when transporting frozen foods, such as: frozen meat, frozen fish, etc. at usual temperatures of -18 / -20 ° C.

  • Refrigerated transport with refrigeration

Refrigerated transport with refrigeration is used when transporting food that require only cooling and maintaining a constant temperature throughout the transport. Examples of food: fresh fish, fresh meat, dairy products, fresh vegetables and fruits, etc.



  1. ADR road transport of dangerous goods

By dangerous goods we refer to those substances which, by their physical-chemical nature, can cause damage to the environment, but also to the affected persons. They can be in liquid or solid state, and depending on this feature you can opt for their transport using normal ADR trucks or ADR car tanks.

The goods considered dangerous - according to the ADR convention - need special attention, both in their packaging and in the preparation of the transport documents to ensure maximum safety and legality in the delivery process.

These are the dangerous goods classes established by ADR:

       Class 1: Explosive substances and objects;

       Class 2: Gas;

       Class 3: Flammable liquids;

       Class 4.1: Flammable solids, self-reactive substances and explosive substances, desensitized solid;

       Class 4.2: Spontaneously igniting substances;

       Class 4.3: Substances which, in contact with water, release flammable gases;

       Class 5.1: Oxidizing substances;

       Class 5.2: Organic peroxides;

       Class 6.1: Toxic substances;

       Class 6.2: Contagious substances;

       Class 7: Radioactive substances;

       Class 8: Corrosive substances;

       Class 9: Miscellaneous dangerous substances and objects.

Truck drivers who carry dangerous goods must hold an ADR certificate that completes the initial or continuous professional qualification certificate (CPI / CPC). The ADR certificate is obtained following a specific training and aims to prevent disasters that may be caused due to non-compliance with the rules of the ADR agreement. The ADR certificates are valid for a period of 5 years and are issued by the Romanian Road Authority (ARR).

Drivers carrying ADR dangerous goods have the following prohibitions:

  • To cause shock to the truck while driving;
  • To smoke while driving or to light a fire when stopped or stationary, at a distance of less than 50 meters from the vehicle;
  • To leave the truck and cargo unattended;
  • To tow a vehicle that has been damaged;
  • To follow another route or to stay in places other than those previously established;
  • To allow the presence in the truck of other persons, with the exception of the other driver, the attendants or those who load / unload the goods carried;
  • To keep fuel reserves in the vehicle in packages not specially made for this purpose.


  1. Road transport of waste and garbage

By waste and garbage transportation we understand all the processes that begin after the collection of waste and garbage and ends with their delivery to the recycling, treatment and / or disposal facilities. There are three types of waste and garbage transport: by road, by rail and by sea. In the following, we will limit ourselves to the road transport of garbage.

Waste collection and transport vehicles are used for road transport of waste and garbage. These are either trucks with special containers that are loaded directly, or trucks that can be fitted with large capacity containers that are already loaded.

An important condition imposed on collection vehicles is that they can load as much waste as possible. Some of the criteria according to which the size of the vehicle for collection and transport is determined are: payload, distance to the transfer station, treatment and / or disposal, container system, limitations or difficulties in road traffic, etc.


  1. Oversized transport

A transport is considered to be oversized when the outside dimensions of the trucks exceed the regulated maximum dimensions:

  • if the external dimensions of the truck together with the cargo on it exceed 16.50 x 2.55 x 4.00m*;
  • if the total weight exceeds 40t
  • if axle weights exceeds local regulations

*for a tractor + semitrailer combination. Other types of trucks can have different limitations e.g. car-carriers can be 18.75m long

For the oversized transport it is necessary to obtain additional authorizations, and in some cases, special escorts (authorized civilian escorts or police escorts) and route studies that include measurements in curves, under bridges, to see if the goods can pass safely.

A characteristic of oversized transport is the lack of standardization regarding transport, each transport requiring individual planning.

Among the types of oversized transport we mention:

  • oversized transport for the steel industry;
  • oversized transport - wind installations;
  • transportation of tractors, cranes, excavators, bulldozers;
  • transport - oil and extraction machinery;
  • transport of asphalting stations;
  • oversized transport for heavy vehicles;
  • heavy industrial equipment transport: engines, generators, etc .;
  • oversized transport for the oil, energy, chemical industries;
  • transport of silos, cylinders, tanks, etc .;
  • concrete beams transport;
  • transport of industrial halls and metal structures;
  • transport of other machines, vehicles, structures, etc.
  1. Road transport of live animals

By road transport of live animals we understand all the processes that begin after the loading of the animals and ends with their delivery to the destination. The types of animals transported include: pigs, sheep, cattle, birds, etc.

The means of transport used for the transport of live animals, their containers and their equipment must be constructed, maintained and operated so as to ensure the safety of the animals during transportation and, of course, to prevent their injury and suffering. Vehicles must be constructed in such a way as to give the animals adequate space to stay in their natural position.


These are the types of road freight, classified by freight type and by type of transport. Do you have a preferred type of freight that you would like to carry? If so, write to us in the comments!